Steel before acquiring the harden state, go through various types of treatment and refining processes.

These processes include the selection of suitable scrap and or material and its treatment i.e crushing, melting, refining, blending, and fabrication.

Some of the major properties exhibited by the steel are as follows:-


Almost all grades of steel exhibit good toughness.

It is very important property of steel through which it strongly resists fractures owing to brittleness.

If the steel has insufficient toughness and multiple cracks may develop when it subjected to any kind of stresses.


Any steel which is not resistant to rusting is completely unsuitable for any type of application.

The overall durability depends upon its corrosion resistant property.


Steel in hardened state is completely resistant to any type of wear and tear.

Wear and tear-resistant properties of steel make them a suitable material for application in making utensils, medical equipment, steel balls, vehicles, and in various other industrial applications.


Like other properties, ductility is also very important property of steel.

It enables the steel to bear the tensile load without any structural damage.

Steel with good ductility recommended for building construction and industrial applications.

Good ductility minimizes the risk of fatigue failure in steel.


Durability of hardened steel used to make heavy duty components of machines, building elements, knives etc.


Mild steel is the most common and the least expensive steels used for different purposes.

The manufacturing process of mild steel is different.

It utilizes a hot rolling mechanism.

Mild steel has less than 2% carbon and structural strength is not usually sufficient to use in structural beams and girders.

Different important properties of mild steel Given below:-

Mild steel has poor resistance to corrosion thus it requires painting for protection.

It is most suitable for welding applications.

Mild steel exhibits good magnetism property, thus it easily conducts electricity and does not form any staining surface on the metal.

Since it is good in toughness and more resistant to cracks and fractures.

it used in the manufacturing of various materials used in building construction, pipelines, and manufacturing of several domestic products.

Mild steel is ductile in nature and can be easily shaped and reshaped through machines.


Steel also used in electrical machinery, generators, and transformers for this steel, made suitable, and its magnetic properties increased by chemical composition.

To exhibit magnetic properties following types of proportion of various elements of steel used:-

a) Carbon:-

It is necessary to keep carbon content as low as possible and it should not exceed 0.11% by weight within steel.

b) Sulphur and Phosphorus:-

Combined percentage of both sulphur and phosphorus can severely affect steels magnetic property.

Combined percentage of Sulphur and phosphorus should not exceed 0.30%.


Silicon presence in steel results in co0nsiderable increase of electrical losses and hence it is highly undesirable.


High manganese percentage reduces the magnetic property of steel. To avoid this manganese percentage should not exceed 0.30%.


There are several types of defects noticed in steel.

Some of the most common defects steel mentioned below:-

(a) Cavities:-

Several gas cavities formed when gas confined or imprisoned in the molten mass of raw metal.

Such confined gas produces bubbles or blow holes on solidification of the metal.

These cavities can severely affect the strength of steel.

(b) Segregation:-

During the steel solidification process, some constituent of steel solidifies at the early stage

And they separate from the main mass of steel are known as segregation.

(c) Cold Shortness:-

It is a defect in the steel that can cause cracks when being worked in cold state.

Cold shortness defect caused by the presence of excess amount of phosphorus within the steel mass.

(d) Red Shortness:-

This is the defect caused by the presence of excess amount of Sulphur within steel constituents.

Owing this defect, cracks can formed within steel when being worked in cold state.


Mechanical treatment to steel is given for acquiring the desired shape and making steel available in market forms, utilized For different purposes.

The mechanical treatment of steel may be hot working or cold working.

The important operations involve in mechanical treatment of steel are Drawing, Forging, Pressing and Rolling.

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