Functions, Requirements And Types Of Pavements

This Article Covers Function Of Pavement, Requirement Of Good Pavement And Classification/Types Of Pavements.

Let’s Begin With Definition,

What Is A Pavement?

A multi layer system that distributes the vehicular loads over a larger area non as pavement.

Highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of selected and processed materials whose primary function is to distribute the applied vehicle load to the subgrade.

It can also be defined as “structure which separates the tires of vehicles from the under lying foundation.”

  • Pavement is the upper part of roadway, airport or parking area structure.
  • It includes all layers resting on the original ground.
  • It consists of all structural elements or layers, including shoulders.

Functions Of The Pavement

  • Reduce and distribute the traffic loading so as not to damage the subgrade
  • Provide vehicle access between two points under all-weather conditions
  • Provide safe, smooth and comfortable ride to road users without undue delays and excessive wear & tear
  • Meet environmental and aesthetics requirement
  • Limited noise and air pollution
  • Reasonable economy

Requirements Of Pavement Structure

  • Sufficient thickness to spread loading to a pressure intensity tolerable by subgrade.
  • Sufficiently strong to carry imposed stress due to traffic load.
  • Sufficient thickness to prevent the effect of frost susceptible subgrade.
  • Pavement material should be impervious to penetration of surface water which could weaken subgrade and subsequently pavement.
  • The Pavement material should be non-frost susceptible.
  • Pavement surface should be skid resistant.

Types Of Pavements

Types Of Pavements

Rigid Pavement

Rigid pavements are those, which contain sufficient beam strength to be able to bridge over the localized subgrade failures and areas of in adequate support.

Load is transmitted through beam action of slab in rigid pavements.

Rigid pavements are those, which reduce the stress concentration and distribute the reduced stresses uniformly to the area under the slab.

Rigid Pavements
  • Rigidity– does not deform under stress
  • Concrete– air entrained increases resistance to frost damage and de-icing salt corrosion
  • Reinforcement– may be bars or mesh. Continuous rigid pavements have heavy reinforcement
  • Joints– used in non-continuous pavements to allow for thermal movement. Includes a ‘filler’ and surface sealant
  • Rigid pavements– laid as single layer by ‘concrete paver’

Because of its relative rigidity, the pavement structure distributes loads over a wide area with only one or at most two structural layers.

There are other types of surfaces also i.e reinforced, continuously reinforced etc.

Flexible Pavement

A flexible pavement is a structure that maintains intimate contact with and distributes load to the sub grade and depends on aggregate interlock, particle friction and cohesion for stability.

It is a structure which distributes the traffic loading stresses to the soil (subgrade) at a magnitude that will not shear or distort the soil  e.g, from 150 psi to 3 psi

Pavement which reflects deformation of subgrade & the subsequent layers on to the surface i.e, load transmitted from grain to grain through contact points of granular material i.e, in a compressive way.

Wheel Load Distribution

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