This Article Covers Introduction To Geometric Design And Factors Affecting Geometric Design One By One.
Introduction To Geometric Design
Geometric design for transportation facilities includes the design of geometric cross sections, horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, intersections, and various design details. These basic elements are common to all linear facilities, such as roadways, railways, and airport runways and taxiways.
Although the details of design standards vary with the mode and the class of facility, most of the issues involved in geometric design are similar for all modes. In all cases, the goals of geometric design are to maximize the comfort, safety, and economy of facilities, while minimizing their environ-mental impacts.
This chapter focuses on the fundamentals of geometric design, and presents standards and examples from different modes.
The geometric design of highways deals with the dimensions and layout of visible features of the highway.
The features normally considered are the cross section elements, sight distance consideration, horizontal curvature, gradients, and intersection. The design of these features is to a great extend influenced by driver behavior and psychology, vehicle characteristics, traffic characteristics such as speed and volume.
Proper geometric design will help in the reduction of accidents and their severity. Therefore, the objective of geometric design is to provide optimum efficiency in traffic operation and maximum safety at reasonable cost.
Factors Affecting Geometric Design
Design speed is the single most important factor that affects the geometric design. It directly affects the sight distance, horizontal curve, and the length of vertical curves. Since the speed of vehicles vary with driver, terrain etc, a design
speed is adopted for all the geometric design.
It is easier to construct roads with required standards for a plain terrain. However, for a given design speed, the construction cost increases multi form with the gradient and the terrain.
It is of crucial importance in highway design, is the traffic data both current and future estimates. Traffic volume indicates the level of services (LOS) for which the highway is being planned and directly affects the geometric features such as width, alignment, grades etc., without traffic data it is very difficult to design any highway
Design Hourly Volume And Capacity:
The general unit for measuring traffic on highway is the Annual Average Daily Traffic volume, abbreviated as AADT. The
traffic flow (or) volume keeps fluctuating with time, from a low value during off peak hours to the highest value during the peak hour. It will be uneconomical to design the roadway facilities for the peak traffic flow.
Environmental And Other Factors:
The environmental factors like air pollution, noise pollution, landscaping, aesthetics and other global conditions should be given due considerations in the geometric design of roads.
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