Soil Classification For Tunneling In Soft Ground And Ideal Characteristics Of Soil Covers Briefly In This Article,

A Tunnel Built In Soft Ground Such As Clay, Silt, Sand, Gravel, Or Mud Requires Specialized Techniques Compared To Hard Rock.

Soil Classification For Tunneling In Soft Ground

1) Running Ground:-

Water Bearing Sands And Similar Cohesion less Soil Come Under This Class.

In Running Ground Type Soil Needs Instant Support All Around.

2) Soft Ground:-

When Soil Need Instant Support For Roof Like Soft Clay Know As Soft Ground Soil.

3) Firm Ground:-

The Roof Can Stand For Few Minutes And The Sides For Much Longer Period, Then Soil Type Likely Know As Firm Ground.

Tunneling In Soft Ground

4) Self- Supporting Ground:-

When The Soil Stands Supported For A Short Period And For Short Length Of 1200 mm To 1500 mm. Like Sandstones, Cemented Stones Etc.

Characteristics Of Ideal Soil

  • Remain Unaffected When Exposed To Air
  • Composed Of Homogenous Material.
  • Not Have Any Water Bearing Strata.
  • Capable Of Being Easily Excavated.

Choice Of Method For Tunneling In Soft Ground

The Factors Affecting To Choice Of Tunneling Method Is Soft Grounds :-

  1. Equipment’s Availability
  2. Method Of Sequence Of Excavation
  3. Size Of Tunnel
  4. Type Of Ground

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