# SURVEY TYPES AND METHODS

## DEFINITION:-

Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth.

• It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between lines, of determining the direction of lines, and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements.
• Along with the actual survey measurements are the mathematical calculations.
• Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are determined from the data of the survey.
• Survey data portrayed graphically by the construction maps, profiles, cross sections, and diagrams.

## TYPES OF SURVEYING:-

### Geodetic Surveying:

The type of surveying that takes into account the true shape of the earth. These surveys are of high precision and extend over large areas.

### Plane Surveying:

The type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane, or in which its spheroidal shape is
neglected, with regard to horizontal distances and directions.

## DIFFERENT METHODS OF SURVEYING:-

### Control Survey

Made to establish the horizontal and vertical positions of arbitrary points.

### Boundary Survey

Made to determine the length and direction of land lines and to establish the position of these lines on the ground.

### Topographic Survey

Made to gather data to produce a topographic map showing the
configuration of the terrain and the location of natural and man-made objects.

### Hydrographic Survey

The survey of bodies of water made for purpose of navigation, water supply, or sub-aqueous construction.

### Mining Survey

Made to control, locate and map underground and surface works related to mining operations.

### Construction Survey

Made to lay out, locate and monitor public and private engineering works.

### Route Survey

Refers to those control, topographic, and construction surveys necessary for the location and construction of highways, railroads, canals, transmission lines, and
pipelines.

### Photogrammetric Survey

Made to utilize the principles of aerial photogrammetry, in which measurements made onphotographs are used todetermine the positions of photographedobjects.

### Astronomical survey

An astronomical survey is a general map or image of a region of the sky that lacks a specific observational target.

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