Classification of Surveys

This article Covers Classification Of Surveys Based On Field And Instrument One By One.

Surveying Defined As The Science Of Making Measurements Of The Earth Specially Surface Of Earth, This Being carried Out By Finding Spatial Location Of Points On Or Near Surface Of The Earth.

Classification Of Surveys

Before Going With Classification Of Surveys Let’s See Objectives

Objectives Of Surveying

  • To Collect Field Data
  • To Prepare Plan Or Map of The Area Surveyed
  • Analyse And To Calculate The Field Parameters For Setting Out Operation Of Actual Engineering Work.
  • To Set Out Field Parameters At The Site For Further Engineering Works.

Lets Classification Of Surveys,

According To Use And Purpose Of The Final Maps, Surveys May Be Classified, Under The Following Different Heads,

Classification Based Upon Nature Of The Field/Purpose

Topographical Survey:-

These Survey Used To Obtained Maps Which Shows Details Of Natural And Man-Made Features On The Earth Surface Including Elevation.

Scale = (1:25000 To 1:10 Lakh)

Engineering Survey:-

These Surveys Used For Engineering Works Like Railway, Highway, Canal, Bridge, Etc


  • Building:- 1:50 To 1:200
  • Bridge And Other Civil Engineering Work:- 1:500 To 1:2500
  • Highway:- 1:1250 To 1:50000

Cadastral Survey:-

The Surveys Which Generally Plotted To A Larger Scale Then Topographical Surveys And Carried Out For Fixing The Property Lines.

Scale 1:1000 To 1:5000

Hydrographic Survey:-

The Survey Which Deals With Mapping Of Large Water Bodies For The Purpose Of Navigation, Construction Of Harbour Works, Prediction Of Tides And Determination Of mean Sea Level Called Hydrographic Survey.

Hydrographic Survey Consists Of Preparation Of Topographical Maps Of The Shore And Banks, By Taking Soundings End Determining The Depth Of Water At A Number Of Places And Ultimately Surveying Bathymetric Contours Under Water.

Astronomical Survey:-

With The Help Of This Survey We Can Determine Latitude, Longitude And LMT At Any Place On The Earth Surface.

Geological Survey:-

It Done To Determine Information About Various Strata Of Earth Surface.

Classification Based On Instrument

Chain Survey:-

Chain Survey Simplest Type Of Surveying In which Only Linear Measurements Done With The Help Of Chain Or Tape And No Angular Measurements Done.

Compass Surveying:-

It Is A Branching Of Surveying In Which Horizontal Angles And Direction Of Lines Are Measured With Compass And Length Of Line Are Measured With Chain And Tape.

Theodolite Surveying:-

In This Surveying Horizontal And Vertical Angles Measured With Theodolite And Distance Measured With Chain Or Tape.


In This Type Of Surveying Elevations Of Various Points Measured With Levelling Instrument And Vertical Staff.

Plane Table Survey:-

In Plane Table Surveying Plan Or Map Is Produced By Determining Direction Of Various Points And Taking Linear Measurement With Chain Or Tape.

Tacheometric Surveying:

In This Surveying Horizontal And Vertical Distances Are Measured With A Instrument Called Tacheometer.

Photogrammetric Surveying:-

In This Surveying Photographs Taken For An Area Which Are Inaccessible Or Time Available Is less And Area To Be Survey Large.

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