This Article Covers parking Studies Like, Types Of Parking, Types Of Parking Survey, Types Of Off-Street Parking, Types Of On-Street Parking, And Types Of Parking Spaces.
TYPES OF PARKING
Stopping the vehicle and leaving it unoccupied called Parking or The practice of temporarily leaving a vehicle into a certain location.
A standing vehicle required to parked properly otherwise it may cause serious problems to the moving traffic and street congestions. Due to enormous increase of vehicles specially private passenger cars , the traffic parking problem is becoming severe day by day in almost all big cities.
In Industrial, Commercial and Residential places with multi-storeyed building parking demand is particular high as most of the people use their own car and do not come in public transport.
Parking has some ill-effects like Congestion, Accidents, Pollution, Obstruction to Fire-Fighting Operations etc.
Parking takes considerable street space leading to the lowering of the road capacity. Hence, speed will reduced, journey time and delay will also subsequently increase.
Careless maneuvering of parking and un-parking leads to accidents.
Common type of parking accidents occur while driving out a car from the parking area, careless opening of the doors of parked cars.
Parking facilities can be classified into two big categories
- On Street Parking
- Off Street Parking
On Street Parking
It also known as curb parking as the vehicles parked on the side of the road (along the curb) . This type of parking adopted when width of shoulder and also road is sufficient and when open spaces are not available in the nearby vicinity.
There are two types of On Street Parking
- Parallel Parking
- Angular Parking
In this type of parking , the vehicle parked parallel to roadway. It generally preferred when the width of roadway and parking space limited. In this way minimum number of vehicle can accommodated per unit curb length. The Parking and un-parking operation are difficult needing a few forward and reverse movements.
Parallel parking may be with equal spacing or may be two cars with open interval b/w them as shown in the figure . The width of parking perpendicular to roadway is about 8 feet (9.5 feet) and length along roadway for equal spacing is 20 feet (25 feet) (maneuverability distance for parking and un-parking)
In this type of parking, the vehicles parked at some angle to roadway (30*45*60*90* ). Angular parking accommodate more vehicles per unit length of curb and maximum for vehicles parked at 90*.
The space required for parking and un-parking maneuvering increases as the angle increase and is maximum for 90* parking. it cause more obstruction to the traffic during parking and un-parking as it cover part of roadway for this purpose.
A 45* parking considered to be the best but usually 30* of parking are common,
On street parking directly or indirectly involved approximately 10% of all accidents.
Angle parking is more dangerous than parallel parking.
Off Street Parking
In Off Street parking , the parking facility provided away from kerb at a separate place. This is a very safe system of parking as it does not cause any congestion and delay in traffic flow on road. the only disadvantage of this system is that the owner has to cover a distance if the facility is at some distance from the main street.
There are two forms of Off Street Parking,
- Parking Lots
- Multi-storeyed Parking Garages
This form of Off Street Parking adopted when sufficient place is available at low cost .The system may be self parking or attendant parking.
In self parking system The driver of car park the vehicle him self in parking place, while in attendant parking system the driver left the car at the entrance and parked by attendant. the driver collect the car from there.
This system not very common, Parking lots mostly constructed of rigid pavements.
Multi-Storeyed Parking Garages
This form of parking used when the space is not available or is very expensive . Ramps and elevator are provided for multi-storeyed Garages. This system is also not very common.
Archades is a long open garage with a shade over it .They are mostly located at a bus station , near large plaza , institutions park etc.
In built up commercial area or residential area specially constructed garages used for parking, However every residential unit if it isolated have its own garages for parking.
Under Ground Parking
The large and important building attracting traffic having shortage of open space near by it provides underground parking in basement.
It involves the following three aspects,
It includes the study of all the existing parking facility , problem associated with them and the study of open spaces available for adopting as parking places.
Parkers interviewed at the parking place which gives an idea about the no of people who would like to bring their cars if the parking facility provided.
A map prepared showing the traffic condition in area and all the open spaces from which the type of parking and other information’s may obtained.
It is the number of vehicles to parked in the parking places, the parking demand may found from cordon volume count.
The area for which parking facility has to provided cordoned out and the number of vehicles entering , leaving and moving noted for the area then number of vehicles to parked found from,
Parking Demand = No of vehicle entering – No of vehicle leaving – No of vehicle moving
The parking demand may found from O&D study by interview method at the place where parking facility has to be provided.
Design Of Parking
From parking inventory and parking demand, a suitable type of parking selected which can fulfilled the parking demand.
The parking may be off street or on street depending upon condition of area. Design of parking nothing, but just to accommodate the vehicles to parked.
- The first step in functional design of an off-street parking facility to determine the vehicle to used for design purpose.
- Car size capabilities vary from country to country.
- To deal with the size variations, it is normal practice to design for at least one hypothetical standard car which reflects the space requirements for majority of cars in given country.
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