13+Various Component Parts Of Building (2024)

In This article We Covers Various Component Parts Of Building One By One.

The building basically consists of three parts namely,


It is the lowest artificially prepared part below the surface of the surrounding ground which is indirect contact with sub-strata and transmits all the loads to the ground (or sub-soil)


It is the middle part of the structure, above the surface of the surrounding ground up to the surface of the floor immediately above the ground. Its function in the building is same as of sub-structure in the case of the bridge.

Super Structure:

It is that part of the structure which is constructed above the plinth level (i.e., ) ground level

Various Component Parts Of Building

A building in general made of the following structural components

  • Foundation
  • Plinth
  • Walls and piers in super structure
  • Ground, basement and upper floors
  • Doors and windows
  • Sills, Lintels and weather shades
  • Roofs
  • Steps and stairs
  • Finishes for walls
  • 10.Utility fixtures

Each of these components is an essential part of a building and requires due consideration in design and construction for their functional performance.

The basic functional requirements of these components discusses Below,


The foundation is the most critical part of any structure and most of the failure is probably due to faulty foundations rather than any other cause. The purpose of foundation is to transmit the anticipated loads safety to the soil

Basic Requirements:

  1. To distribute the total load coming on the structure over a large bearing area so as to prevent it from any movement.
  2. To load the bearing surface or area at a uniform rate so as to prevent any unequal or relative settlement.
  3. Should prevent the lateral movement of the structure
  4. To secure a level or firm natural bed, upon which to lay the courses of masonry and also support the structure.
  5. To increase the suitability of the structure as a whole, so as to prevent it from overturning or sliding against such as wind, rain, frost etc.


This is the portion of structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground. As per Byelaws, the plinth should not be less than 45cm.

Basic Requirements:

1) To transmit the load of the super-structure to the foundation
2) To act as a retaining wall so as to keep the filling portion below the raised floor or the building
3) To protect the building from damp or moisture penetration into it
4) It enhances the architectural appearance of the building

Walls And Piers In Super Structure

The primary function of walls is to enclose or liquid space. A load-bearing wall in the super structure should satisfy the following requirements.


Strengths, stability, weather resistance, fire resistance, heat insulation, sound insulation, privacy and security.

Ground Basement And Upper Floors

The main function of a floor is to provide support of occupants, furniture and equipment of a building and the function of providing different floors is to devoid the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation within the limited space. The floor should satisfy the functional requirements.

Functional Requirements:

  1. Strength and stability
  2. Durability and dampness
  3. Heal insulation
  4. Sound insulation and fire resistance

Doors And Windows

The main function of doors in a building is to serve us a connecting link between internal parts and also to allow the free movement outside the building. Windows are generally provided for the proper ventilation and lighting of a building.

Functional Requirements:

  1. Weather resistance
  2. Sound and thermal insulation
  3. Damp prevention and terminate-proofing
  4. Fire resistance and durability
  5. Privacy and security

Sills, Lintels And Weather Shades

Windowsills are provided between the bottom of window frame and wall below, to protect the top of wall from wear and tear. The actual frame of door or window is not strong enough to support the weight of the wall above the strong enough to support the weight of the wall above the openings and a separate structural element has, therefore to be introduced. This is known as lintel and is similar to a beam.

Weather shades on Chajja are generally combined with lintels of windows to protect from the weather elements such as sun, rain, frost etc.


A roof is the uppermost part of the building whose main function is to enclose the space and to protect the same from the effects of weather elements such as rain, sun, wind, heat, snow etc. A good roof is just as essential as a safe foundation.

Functional Requirements:

  • Strength and stability- strong and stable enough to take up anticipated loads
  • Weather resistance – resistance to wind, rain, sun, snow etc
  • Heat insulation – should provide adequate insulation against heat
  • Sound insulation – should provide adequate deque of insulation against sound from external sources.
  • ire resistance – Should offer the adequate deque of fire resistance.
  • Day lighting – The provides day light in buildings with large floor area i.e., industrial buildings through window in the roof.

Steps And Stairs

A stair is a structural consists of number of steps leading from one floor to another. The main functions of stairs are

  1. To provide means of communication between the various floors for everyday use
  2. To escape from upper floors in the case of fire

Perform these functions, the stairs should satisfy the following requirements in design and construction.

i) Strength and stability- Strong and stable enough to carry the anticipated loads.

ii) Fire resistance- The stairs should be made of the fire resisting material and they provide safe means of escape in the event of fire.

iii) Sound Insulation- If it is necessary to insulate the stairs from the sound either through the proper design and use of insulating materials or separating stair structure from the building structure.

iv) Weather resistance- The stairs, if exposed to open air, should offer sufficient resistance to weather elements such as rain, heat etc.

v) Comfort and convenience- proper design and proper location of steps in a building offer several advantages such as comfort and efficiency in vertical movement, natural light and ventilation; safety in emergency etc.

Various Component Parts Of Building

Finishes For Walls

The finishes of several types such as pointing, plastering, painting, types such as pointing, plastering, painting, distempering, decorative colour washing etc applied on the walls.

Main Function

a. Protect structure from the sun, rain, snow etc.
b. Provide a true, even and smooth finished surface and also to improve the aesthetic appearance of the structure.
c. Rectify rather cover, to some extent, the poor or defective workmanship
d. Cover up the unsound and porous materials used in the construction

Utility Fixtures

These are the built in items of an unmovable nature, which add considerably to the utility of a building and hence termed as utility fixtures. The most common of such built-in fixtures are: cupboards, shelves, smokeless chollas etc.

These features are generally provided in the recesses for storing valuable articles, clothes etc. The recesses in wall structure reduce its strength, so they are avoided in the modern construction of houses.

I Hope We Covers Various Component Parts Of Building.

Thank You For Visiting…

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